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HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers- Fundamentals, Application, and Operation

HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers- Fundamentals, Application, and Operation



Part 1 Fundamentals

1. Refrigeration Machines
2. Chiller Configurations

Part II Design and Application

3. Chilled Water System Elements
4. Chiller Controls
5. Thermal Storage
6. Special Chiller Considerations

Part III Operation and Maintenance

7. Chiller Operation and Maintenance
8. Buying a Chiller


Part IV Fundamentals

9. Cooling Tower Fundamentals
10. Cooling Tower Components

Part V Design and Application

11. Tower Configuration and Application
12. Cooling Tower Controls
13. Condenser Water Treatment
14. Special Tower Considerations

Part VI Operation and Maintenance

15. Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
16. Buying a Cooling Tower
17. In-Situ Tower Performance Testing


Appendix A. Design Ambient Wet Bulb Temperatures

Appendix B. Draft Specifications

Appendix C. References and Resources

preface : 

There are two fundamental types of HVAC systems designed to satisfy building cooling requirements: direct expansion (DX) systems, in which there is direct heat exchange between the building air and the refrigerant, and secondary refrigerant systems that utilize chilled water as an intermediate heat exchange medium to transfer heat from the building air to the refrigerant.

Chilled water systems are the heart of central HVAC cooling, providing cooling throughout a building or group of buildings from one source. Centralized cooling offers numerous operating, reliability, and efficiency advantages over individual DX systems and, on a life-cycle basis, can have significantly lower total cost.

Every central HVAC cooling system is made up of one or more refrigeration machines, or water chillers, designed to collect excess heat from buildings and reject that heat to the outdoor air. The water chiller may use the vapor compression refrigeration cycle or the absorption refrigeration cycle. Vapor compression refrigeration compressors may be of the reciprocating, helical screw, or centrifugal type with electric or gas-fired engine prime movers. The heat collected by the water chiller must be rejected to the atmosphere. 

This waste heat can be rejected by air-cooling, in a process that transfers heat directly from the refrigerant to the ambient air, or by water-cooling, a process that uses water to collect the heat from the refrigerant and then to reject that heat to the atmosphere. Water-cooled systems offer advantages over air-cooled systems, including smaller physical size, longer life, and higher operating efficiency. The success of their operation depends, however, on the proper sizing, selection, application, operation, and maintenance of the cooling tower.



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